Why Is Manual Testing a Thing of the Past?

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Before end-to-end (E2E) testing frameworks, the software development industry struggled with fragmented and inefficient testing methods. Testing was manual, labor-intensive, and prone to human error, which limited testing coverage and left many critical issues undetected until later stages of development.

This manual approach relied heavily on developers and testers executing test cases by hand, leading to substantial inefficiencies and incomplete test coverage.

Manual testing was typically performed at the later stages of the development cycle, often just before the release. This approach is akin to finding faults in a completed house rather than during construction. By this stage, the cost and effort required to fix defects were significantly higher.

According to IBM research, software flaws discovered during later stages, such as testing or production, can be up to 15 times more expensive to fix than those found during the design phase.

Software flaws caught earlier can be addressed with minimal disruption and cost, while those found later require more extensive software architecture and design changes.

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The financial impact of late-stage software defect discovery

The financial implications of discovering software defects late in the development process are substantial.

Over the years, giant corporations have been negatively impacted by a lack of "proper" E2E testing of their core products. Whether a big or small corporation, the glitches in a software system can lead to damaging and possibly bankruptable cons.

Real-world examples

To understand the real-world implications, consider the case of Knight Capital Group in 2012. A software glitch caused a 30-minute trading disruption, resulting in a staggering loss of $440 million, four times the company's net income for the previous year. This incident underscores how late-stage defects can have catastrophic financial consequences.​

In 2018, Amazon's Prime Day sale faced significant issues shortly after launch, with shoppers unable to complete purchases. This downtime is estimated to have cost Amazon between $72.4 million and $99 million in lost revenue. Such outages can lead to significant revenue losses, erode customer trust, and necessitate expensive corrective measures​​.

These are just a few of the many events that underscore the need to adopt more proactive and integrated testing methodologies, such as end-to-end testing frameworks, to catch defects early and mitigate their financial impact​.

By integrating robust end-to-end testing frameworks early in the development process, companies can significantly reduce the risk of encountering such costly defects. This ensures higher software quality and protects companies from late-stage defect discovery's potentially devastating financial impacts.

This shift is essential for maintaining competitive advantage and customer satisfaction in the fast-paced world of software development​​.

Lack of automation and continuous integration

Before the widespread adoption of E2E testing frameworks, testing automation was minimal. This lack of automation meant regression testing—ensuring that new code changes do not adversely affect existing functionality—was either inadequately performed or not performed. Consequently, every new release risked introducing new defects or reintroducing old ones.

Integrating new code into the main codebase was infrequent without continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) practices. This often resulted in integration hell, where merging different developers' code led to

  • Unforeseen conflicts and bugs,
  • Slow development process and
  • Increased risk of defects entering the production environment.

Continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) practices have led to a rise in the utilization of end-to-end (E2E) testing frameworks. This trend has made it significantly easier for software development teams to automate the testing of user interfaces and functionalities, resulting in improved efficiency and reliability of the testing process.

The transformation with E2E testing frameworks

In the digital transformation era, web applications have become integral to our daily lives. They are ubiquitous, from online banking and e-commerce to social media and cloud-based productivity tools. However, ensuring their reliability and performance has become a significant challenge with their increasing complexity and functionality.

End-to-end (E2E) testing frameworks come into play in ensuring the integrity and reliability of these sophisticated applications.

Impact of E2E testing frameworks

The introduction of E2E testing has significantly impacted software development. These frameworks allow for comprehensive, automated testing that mimics real user scenarios, ensuring that all parts of an application work together seamlessly.

By integrating E2E testing into CI/CD pipelines, teams can continuously test their applications throughout the development and deployment cycles, catching and fixing defects early when they are cheaper and easier to address.

Software developers have a love-hate relationship with writing tests. There's an old fictional joke in the development world: "Real developers don't test; they just write code and let users find the bugs!" While this might get a chuckle in the break room, the reality is far from humorous regarding production environments.

E2E testing frameworks simulate fundamental user interactions with the application, ensuring all components work together as intended. They simulate user interactions with the application, such as

  • Clicking through different pages,
  • Entering data into forms and
  • Interacting with various features to replicate real-world usage scenarios.

This comprehensive testing approach is essential for delivering high-quality web applications that meet user expectations and business requirements.

Why every web application needs an E2E testing framework

User experience assurance

One of the primary goals of any web application is to provide a seamless and intuitive user experience.

E2E testing frameworks are crucial in achieving this goal by validating the entire user journey. By simulating fundamental user interactions, E2E tests ensure users can navigate the application without encountering bugs or errors. This not only enhances user satisfaction but also increases user retention and engagement.

A smooth and reliable user experience can be a significant differentiator in a competitive market.

Integration validation

Modern web applications typically have multiple components, including front-end interfaces, back-end services, databases, and third-party integrations. Ensuring these components work together seamlessly is critical for the application's overall functionality.

E2E testing frameworks validate the integration of these components by simulating end-to-end workflows. This helps identify and resolve issues arising from complex integrations, such as data mismatches, API failures, or synchronization problems.

Bug detection

While unit and integration tests are essential for verifying individual components' correctness and interactions, they may only catch some bugs.

E2E testing helps identify bugs that are specific to the user's workflow. These bugs may not be apparent during unit or integration testing but can significantly impact the user experience.

By covering the entire workflow, E2E tests ensure that all potential issues are detected and addressed before the application goes live.

Confidence in deployments

In the fast-paced world of software development, rapid and frequent deployments are becoming the norm. However, this comes with the risk of introducing new bugs and regressions.

E2E testing frameworks provide a safety net by running comprehensive tests before each deployment. This gives development teams the confidence that new changes will keep the functionality intact.

In continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) environments, E2E tests are crucial for maintaining the application's stability and reliability.

Performance and scalability

E2E tests evaluate the application's performance and scalability. By simulating actual user load, they can identify performance bottlenecks and areas for optimization.

Load testing is essential for applications that handle many concurrent users or transactions. E2E testing frameworks provide insights into how the application performs under different conditions, helping teams to make informed decisions about scaling and resource allocation.

Compliance and security

E2E testing frameworks can validate compliance for applications that need to comply with regulatory requirements or security standards. Simulating user workflows allows these tests to verify that the application meets all necessary security and compliance criteria.

This is especially important for applications that handle sensitive data, such as financial or healthcare information.

E2E frameworks and their capabilities

Many tools/frameworks have sprung up since the importance of E2E tests was realized. No single tool is superior to another, as each has strengths that make it useful depending on the kind of software being tested.

Choosing the proper E2E testing framework depends on a project's requirements and constraints. Cypress, Selenium, Puppeteer, and TestCafe each offer unique features and capabilities that cater to different testing needs.

By leveraging these frameworks, development teams can ensure their web applications are reliable and performant and provide a seamless user experience. Discussed below are some of the most widely used E2E frameworks.



Launched in 2015, Cypress is a modern E2E testing framework designed to simplify writing and running tests for web applications. It is mainly known for its developer-friendly setup and powerful debugging capabilities.

Key capabilities

  • Real-time reloads

Automatically reloads tests whenever changes are made, providing instant feedback.

  • Time travel
    Takes snapshots of the application at each step in the test, allowing developers to see what interaction happened at any point.

  • Automatic waiting
    Automatically waits for commands and assertions before moving on, eliminating the need for manual waits.

  • Detailed error messages
    Provides clear and detailed error messages to help diagnose issues quickly.

  • Network traffic control
    Allows the interception and stubbing of network requests to simulate various scenarios.


Released in 2004, Selenium is one of the most established and widely used E2E testing frameworks. It supports multiple programming languages and browsers, making it a versatile choice for web application testing.

Key capabilities

  • Cross-browser testing
    Supports all major browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer.

  • Multi-language support
    Compatible with various programming languages, such as Java, C#, Python, and Ruby.

  • Robust ecosystem
    Includes tools like Selenium WebDriver, Selenium Grid, and Selenium IDE to support various testing needs.

  • Integration with CI/CD
    Easily integrates with CI/CD tools like Jenkins, CircleCI, and Travis CI.

  • Scalability
    Tests can be run in parallel across multiple machines using Selenium Grid.


Puppeteer is a Node.js library developed by Google that provides a high-level API to control Chrome or Chromium browsers. It is well-suited for tasks that require automated browsing.

Key capabilities

  • Headless mode
    Runs Chrome in headless mode, making it faster and more efficient for automated testing.

  • Rich API
    Offers a comprehensive API for controlling browser features and interacting with the DOM.

  • Performance testing
    Allows for collecting performance metrics and auditing against best practices.

  • Screenshot and PDF generation
    It can capture screenshots and generate PDFs of pages, which is useful for visual testing and documentation.

  • Easy setup
    Simple to set up and use, especially for developers familiar with Node.js.



TestCafe is an E2E testing framework that works with any modern browser and does not require WebDriver or other external dependencies. It is designed to be easy to use and integrate.

Key capabilities

  • No dependencies
    This does not require any browser plugins or WebDriver installations.

  • Concurrency
    Can run multiple tests concurrently, reducing overall testing time.

  • Automatic waiting
    Waits for page elements to load before executing actions, minimizing flaky tests.

  • JavaScript and TypeScript support
    Fully supports both JavaScript and TypeScript for writing tests.

  • Cross-browser and cross-device testing
    Works on all major browsers and mobile devices.

Significance of end-to-end testing frameworks in applications

End-to-end (E2E) testing frameworks have become a cornerstone in web application development, ensuring that applications function correctly from start to finish. By replicating real-world user scenarios, these frameworks validate an application's entire workflow, catching defects that could be missed by unit or integration tests. This thorough approach enhances overall quality and boosts developer confidence by identifying issues early in the development cycle.

Web applications require E2E testing frameworks to maintain high standards of quality and reliability. These frameworks automate complex user interactions and comprehensively analyze the application's behavior under various conditions.

This level of testing is essential for detecting integration issues and performance bottlenecks before they impact end users, ultimately saving time and reducing costs associated with late-stage bug fixes.

In conclusion, E2E testing frameworks are essential for delivering robust, reliable, high-performing web applications. They provide comprehensive validation, support continuous integration, and enhance user satisfaction by ensuring that applications work flawlessly across various environments.

By leveraging these frameworks, development teams can significantly improve the quality and reliability of their web applications.

Published on Jul 8, 2024
Yibaebi Elliot
Written by Yibaebi Elliot
Yibaebi Elliot is an intermediate software engineer at Appknox, a mobile security suite that helps enterprises automate mobile security. With extensive experience in building robust, maintainable, and scalable products, Elliot is a key player in ensuring that Appknox's offerings are well-fortified against evolving cyber threats. His goal is to deliver reliable and efficient software solutions that meet businesses' needs.
When he's not busy securing software, you can find him cheering for his favorite football club, Manchester United.


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