Penetration Testing Software vs. Human Expertise: Finding the Right Balance

Penetration testing remains a crucial element in cybersecurity, providing organizations with the proactive means to identify and address security vulnerabilities long before they become opportunities for malicious actors. More than 75% of businesses perform pen-testing either to maintain their security posture or due to compliance reasons.

However, a challenge arises in the contrast between the efficiency of automated penetration testing software and the invaluable insights provided by human expertise. The problem is clear. Automated tools offer speed and consistency in uncovering vulnerabilities, while human experts bring that inimitable touch, understanding the details that machines might overlook. So, how can organizations strike the perfect equilibrium to safeguard their digital assets effectively and efficiently?

This blog examines the interaction between penetration testing software and human skills. We'll delve into the strengths and limitations of both, discovering what CISOs and security experts must do to find the essential balance for strengthening cybersecurity in a constantly changing digital environment.

Evolution of Pen Testing as a Service (PTaaS)

Pen Testing as a Service (PTaaS) represents a significant evolution in cybersecurity, driven by the need for more agile, scalable, and cost-effective solutions in the face of rapidly evolving cyber threats. Traditionally, penetration testing mostly involved hiring external experts or using in-house teams to simulate cyber attacks and identify vulnerabilities in an organization's systems. However, this approach had limitations in terms of scalability, resource allocation, and real-time adaptability.

The emergence of PTaaS marks a shift towards a more service-oriented and dynamic model. One of the key enablers of this evolution is the integration of advanced pen-testing software into cloud-based platforms. This automates various aspects of the penetration testing process, allowing for faster and more frequent assessments. Automated tools can simulate various cyber threats, identify vulnerabilities, and generate real-time reports, providing organizations with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of their security posture.

Penetration Testing in Million-Dollar Environments

The use of pen-testing software in a service-oriented model offers several advantages. It provides organizations with on-demand access to cutting-edge tools and expertise without the need for a dedicated in-house team. Additionally, PTaaS platforms often offer continuous monitoring, allowing organizations to stay vigilant against emerging threats. The scalability of these services makes them suitable for businesses of all sizes, from startups to large enterprises, democratizing access to robust cybersecurity assessments.

However, the evolution of PTaaS is not without its challenges. While automated tools enhance efficiency, they may lack the contextual understanding and creative problem-solving skills that human experts bring to the table. Striking the right balance between automated testing and human expertise is crucial for maximizing the effectiveness of PTaaS. Moreover, ensuring the ethical and responsible use of automated tools is essential to avoid potential risks and pitfalls.

Imagine a scenario where one of the largest airlines in Southeast Asia, with assets exceeding billions, finds itself in the crosshairs of sophisticated cyber attackers. Despite having security and technology teams in place, the institution faces a breach resulting in substantial financial losses and reputational damage.

The post-incident analysis revealed the enormous gaps in their existing security practices followed by security and technology teams. The current security infrastructure and protection tools were ineffective against complex, multi-faceted threats designed to bypass conventional security protocols. This incident exposes the limitations of relying solely on automated tools and underscores the indispensable value of incorporating expert human analysis into the cybersecurity framework.

This is where security penetration testing offered by Appknox becomes crucial. Appknox’s PTaaS solutions come with a human + automated approach designed to seamlessly integrate the efficiency of automated testing with the depth and insight of seasoned security professionals. 

With Appknox, organizations receive comprehensive vulnerability assessments conducted by advanced automated tools and benefit from the critical analysis and strategic recommendations offered by a team of experienced cybersecurity experts.

The Value of Human Expertise

Human expertise plays a pivotal role in penetration testing, adding a layer of insight and creativity that automated tools often struggle to replicate. While penetration testing software can efficiently scan for known vulnerabilities and execute predefined tests, it lacks the contextual understanding, intuition, and adaptability that human testers bring to the table.

One of the key strengths of human expertise lies in the ability to think like a potential attacker. Ethical hackers can simulate real-world scenarios, employing creative thinking to identify vulnerabilities that automated tools might overlook. They can adapt their strategies based on the unique characteristics of an organization's systems, mimicking the unpredictable nature of cyber threats. This adaptability is crucial, especially when facing sophisticated and evolving attack techniques.

Here’s an example that showcases the unique value that human experts bring to the cybersecurity domain.

Alex Birsan’s Attack: 

Known as “Dependency Confusion,” Alex Birsan’s attack was a sophisticated supply chain attack that exploited the trust companies place in their internal libraries.

Attack Overview:

Alex Birsan discovered a flaw in how major tech firms handle their internal code libraries. These companies often use a mix of public and private libraries, with private libraries hosting proprietary code. These companies' package managers were designed to pull code from public and private libraries.

Discovery and Exploitation:

Birsan noticed that these managers don’t always verify the source of the libraries correctly, which created an opportunity for exploitation. He uploaded malicious code to public repositories using the same names as the companies' private packages. When the package manager attempted to pull the required library, it didn’t distinguish between the public and private libraries correctly, inadvertently pulling and executing the malicious code.


The exploitation affected over 35 tech firms, including significant players like Apple, Microsoft, and PayPal, compromising their systems. This incident not only spotlighted the inherent risks of using automated systems for code deployment but also emphasized the importance of human vigilance in identifying and rectifying subtle, ingenious threats.

Human Insight Factor:

While automated security systems at these tech giants were designed to identify and mitigate known risks and vulnerabilities, they could not foresee and counter the innovative strategy deployed by Birsan. Birsan’s human ingenuity and ability to think like an attacker allowed him to exploit a loophole that machines could not understand or anticipate.

Birsan's Dependency Confusion attack exemplifies the limitations of solely relying on automated security protocols. It emphasizes the value of incorporating human expertise to understand, identify, and mitigate the risks associated with creative and innovative cyber threats, underscoring the importance of a balanced, integrated approach to cybersecurity.

Guide to Penetration Testing

Crafting Symbiosis: Penetration Testing Software vs. Human Expertise

Penetration testing software and human expertise together offer a symbiotic solution where the strengths of the other compensate for the weaknesses of one. Automated pen testing offers a broad view, quickly identifying potential threats and vulnerabilities across the digital landscape, while with manual penetration testing, human experts dive deep, analyzing and interpreting these findings in context.

This synergy facilitates a comprehensive security strategy. Automated penetration testing tools continuously scan the environment, providing real-time data to human experts who analyze these findings, strategize, and prioritize responses to threats. The result is a dynamic, adaptive security protocol that’s both broad and deep, protecting organizations from a wide range of threats.


A Technical Comparison Between Automated and Manual Pen Testing


Automated Pen Testing

Manual Pen Testing

Speed of Execution

Fast, can complete scans within minutes to hours.

Slower due to human involvement. Each test is conducted meticulously  and can take days or weeks.


Can efficiently handle large-scale testing across numerous systems. 

Limited by the number of security professionals available; not ideal for large-scale deployments. 

Depth of Analysis

Limited to known vulnerabilities and predefined attack patterns, might lack depth in analysis. 

Can identify complex, unknown vulnerabilities and logic-based flaws through critical analysis and creative thinking.

Contextual Understanding

Lacks the ability to understand the context or business logic of the application being tested.  

Has a deep understanding of the application’s business logic and can provide context-based security assessments. 

False Positives/

May generate false positives and negatives, requiring further analysis to confirm findings.   

Can significantly reduce false positives and negatives through careful analysis and verification.


Limited flexibility; relies on predefined settings and templates.

Highly flexible and adaptable, it can be tailored to the unique security requirements of each application.

Human Intuition

Lacks human intuition and the capability to think like an attacker.

Utilizes the expertise, intuition, and experience of seasoned security professionals.   


Often less expensive in the short term due to speed and scalability.  

Can be more costly but provides in-depth, thorough testing and analysis.

Maintenance and Updates

Require frequent updates to stay current with new vulnerabilities and attack vectors.

Continuous learning, and adapting to the evolving threat landscape; requires ongoing training and development for security experts.


Integration Strategy for CIOs

Implementing a robust security framework where a balanced mix of automated penetration testing tools and human expertise are used is key for decision-makers. Now that we have discussed the importance of high-end automated tools and how well they function with expert human intervention, it’s key to understand the ways this strategy could be integrated into security systems by CIOs.

But First, Let’s Learn from the Equifax Scenario: 

In 2017, Equifax, one of the largest credit reporting agencies, suffered a massive data breach that exposed the personal information of approximately 147 million people. The breach resulted from exploiting a vulnerability in the Apache Struts web application framework.

The Incident Analysis

Although Equifax had security mechanisms in place, the breach exploited a known vulnerability for which a patch was available but not implemented timely by Equifax. This lapse in updating their systems made them susceptible to the breach, emphasizing the limitations of relying solely on automated defenses and the necessity of human oversight in maintaining and updating security protocols.

Strategic Integration for Enhanced Security

After the breach, Equifax had to reevaluate and overhaul its security protocols, making a significant investment in technology and expert personnel to prevent a recurrence of such an incident. Incorporating a robust combination of automated tools and human expertise allowed for a comprehensive and nuanced approach to cybersecurity. This integrated strategy offered a more robust defense mechanism, adept at identifying, analyzing, and responding to various cyber threats.

Lessons for CIOs

The Equifax breach provides a valuable lesson for CIOs on the importance of combining automated security protocols with the expertise and vigilance of cybersecurity professionals. Automated tools are immensely efficient but are not infallible. Human experts can provide the necessary oversight, diligence, and creativity to identify and rectify potential vulnerabilities, ensuring a more secure and resilient cybersecurity framework.

The Equifax case study underscores the vital importance of an integrated cybersecurity strategy that amalgamates the efficiency of automated tools with the critical thinking and expertise of skilled professionals. For CIOs, understanding and implementing such an integrated approach is pivotal in safeguarding their organization’s data and maintaining the trust and confidence of their customers.

In the quest to leverage the PTaaS and human expertise synergy, the role of CIOs is pivotal. Below are strategic steps for effective integration:

Invest in Premium PTaaS: CIOs should consider Pen Testing as a Service solution that is renowned for its comprehensive features, offering extensive vulnerability scanning and assessment capabilities.

Hire and Retain Talent: Recruiting seasoned cybersecurity professionals is non-negotiable. But it doesn’t stop there. Investing in their continuous training and development ensures they can interpret and act on the data that pen-testing software solutions generate.

Foster Collaborative Environments: A space where technology and human talent intersect seamlessly is crucial. Collaboration platforms should encourage information sharing and collective strategizing between the PTaaS system and the cybersecurity team.

Engage in Continuous Learning: The cyber threat landscape is forever evolving. Therefore, staying ahead requires a commitment to learning. CIOs should champion ongoing education and awareness programs, ensuring their teams know the latest cybersecurity trends, threats, and best practices.

Crafting a Future-Ready Security Architecture

The process of integrating Pen testing as a service with human expertise is continuous and dynamic. For CIOs steering this ship, the focus should be on creating a responsive and proactive architecture. It’s about building a security framework where PTaaS provides the initial layer of defense, quickly identifying potential threats, with human experts stepping in to offer depth analysis, strategic thinking, and nuanced decision-making.

Final Thoughts: Finding the Right Balance 

Pen Testing as a Service (PTaaS) is a cutting-edge security approach that uses rapid, automated tools as a crucial first line of defense for organizations. Yet, even with advanced automated systems, experienced cybersecurity professionals are essential for a foolproof security strategy.

The unique understanding and adaptability that human experts bring to the table are irreplaceable. Their insights add depth to the broad coverage of PTaaS.

CIOs, standing at the intersection of technology and talent, have to play a crucial role in combining PTaaS capabilities with the strategic insights of skilled professionals to create a strong and resilient cybersecurity framework.

In this effort, integrating penetration testing software and human expertise isn't just a strategic move—it's the foundation for building a secure digital enterprise ready to face the diverse cyber challenges of the modern world. Recognizing, appreciating, and seamlessly blending these elements is key to establishing a future-ready cybersecurity approach.

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Published on Nov 30, 2023
Abhinav Vasisth
Written by Abhinav Vasisth
Abhinav Vasisth is a certified ethical hacker and the security research lead at Appknox, a mobile security suite that helps enterprises automate mobile security. Abhinav has been a critical member of Appknox for 5 years, reinventing the standards of mobile app security against evolving threats. He is highly regarded in the industry for his expertise, speaks at various security conferences like PHDays, and has collaborated with numerous enterprises to safeguard their digital assets.
When he's not outsmarting hackers, he listens to metal music or is lost in books.


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