DNS poisoning and spoofing are cyberattacks that use DNS server vulnerabilities to redirect traffic away from real servers and towards false ones. When you get at a bogus page, you may be perplexed about how to resolve it, even though you are the only one who can. To protect yourself, you'll need to understand exactly how it works.
DNS spoofing and DNS cache poisoning are two of the more deceptive cyberthreats. You may be misled into believing that a website has been hacked if you do not understand how the internet links you to websites. In certain circumstances, it might just be your gadget. Worse, cybersecurity suites can only detect a subset of DNS spoofing attacks.
What Is DNS Poisoning, and How Does It Work?
To fully comprehend how DNS poisoning works, some background on how the internet delivers visitors to various domains is required.
Every device and server has a unique internet protocol (IP) address, a string of digits that identifies communications. Every website has a domain name (e.g., www.keyfactor.com) that sits on top of it to allow internet users to get to the websites they desire easily.
The domain name system (aka DNS) then translates the domain name that users submit to the right IP address to route their traffic, all handled by DNS servers correctly.
DNS poisoning exploits flaws in this procedure to reroute traffic to an unauthorised IP address. Hackers specifically acquire access to a DNS server to change its directory to route the domain name users enter to a different, inaccurate IP address.DNS spoofing occurs when someone obtains access to a DNS server and begins diverting traffic. DNS cache poisoning goes a step further.
When DNS cache poisoning occurs, a user's device stores the wrong IP address in its cache (aka memory). This implies that the device will automatically redirect the user to the bogus IP address even when the issue has been rectified.
The most significant vulnerability that permits this sort of attack is that the whole system for routing web traffic was designed for scalability rather than security. The present approach is based on the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which does not need senders or recipients to confirm that they are ready to communicate or who they are.
This vulnerability allows hackers to forge identification information (which does not require extra verification) and enter the procedure to redirect DNS servers. While this is a huge weakness, it is not as straightforward as it looks. To accomplish this efficiently, a hacker must answer a request within a few milliseconds before the genuine source responds and provide comprehensive information in their response, such as the port the DNS resolver is using and the request ID number.
Methods of Attacking DNS Spoofing Attacks
DNS spoofing attacks are classified based on the final purpose of the attacker. This sort of cyber assault relates to the broad category of DNS spoofing attacks. DNS spoofing may be accomplished in a variety of methods, including
- Putting a DNS server at risk
- An assault on DNS cache poisoning
- Attack with a man-in-the-middle (if you can get access to the network)
- Guessing the sequence number (maybe making many requests)
- False base station construction and network DNS server fabrication
How Can DNS Spoofing Be Avoided?
DNS servers require robust security setups to prevent hackers from compromising and hijacking them. Mitigation strategies include:
- To guard against MITM attacks, use adequate SSL/TLS encryption for DNS queries and answers.
- Use DNS server source port randomisation to reduce the likelihood of being successfully anticipated and targeted by attackers.
- Maintain the server's operating system and DNS software to ensure they are both up to date, as servers with known vulnerabilities are frequently aggressively targeted by hackers.
- Actively monitor DNS data for any strange trends that may signal the existence of an attacker, such as the appearance of a new external host.
- To keep every device on the network adequately protected, use strong router passwords and implement a secure password policy throughout the whole network.